When did Afghanistan become Islamic?

Afghanistan, located at the crossroads of Central Asia, has a complex history that dates back thousands of years. In this article, we will explore the period when Afghanistan became an Islamic state, tracing the origins of Islam in the region and the key historical events that led to its widespread adoption.

The arrival of Islam in Afghanistan can be traced back to the 7th century AD, during the time of the Islamic expansion. It was during this period that Arab armies began to conquer vast territories, spreading the teachings of Islam to new regions. The Persians, who controlled Afghanistan at the time, had a significant influence on the spread of Islam, as many embraced the religion and played a crucial role in its dissemination to their Afghan counterparts.

One of the pivotal events in the Islamicization of Afghanistan was the Arab conquest of the region in the 8th century AD. The Umayyad Caliphate, led by Abdul Rahman bin Samura, launched a military campaign to expand the Islamic empire and established control over Afghanistan. This marked a turning point in the history of the region, as it brought about significant changes in the religious, cultural, and political landscape.

Over the centuries, Afghanistan witnessed the rise and fall of various Islamic dynasties, with each contributing to the consolidation of Islam in the region. The Ghaznavid Empire, which spanned the 10th and 12th centuries, played a critical role in promoting Islam and transforming Afghanistan into a center of Islamic learning and culture. This period saw the construction of magnificent mosques and the establishment of madrasas, attracting scholars and students from all over the Islamic world.

In conclusion, the process of Islamization in Afghanistan was gradual, with different historical events and dynasties contributing to its transformation into an Islamic state. The spread of Islam in the region was facilitated by the Arab conquest, the influence of Persians, and the efforts of various Islamic dynasties. Understanding the historical context is essential to comprehend the deep roots and significance of Islam in Afghanistan today.

Table of Contents

Afghanistan: From Ancient Times to Islamic Rule

Afghanistan, located in South Asia, has a rich history dating back thousands of years. The region that encompasses modern-day Afghanistan was once part of the ancient Persian empire. It was also home to various other ancient civilizations, including the Maurya Empire and the Kushan Empire.

The first known kingdom in Afghanistan was the Bactrian Kingdom, which existed from the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century CE. This kingdom had strong ties to Hellenistic culture and was founded by Greek settlers. The Bactrian Kingdom eventually fell to the Kushan Empire, which ruled over Afghanistan and much of Central Asia.

In the 7th century CE, Islam began to spread to Afghanistan. Arab armies conquered the region and introduced the religion to the local population. Afghanistan became part of the Islamic Caliphate, and Islam became the dominant religion of the region.

During the Islamic period, Afghanistan experienced the rise and fall of various dynasties and empires. The Samanids, Ghaznavids, and Timurids were among the notable dynasties that ruled over the region. These empires played a significant role in shaping Afghan culture and society, bringing with them Persian and Turkic influences.

Afghanistan also served as a strategic crossroads for various trade routes, including the famous Silk Road. This resulted in the region becoming a melting pot of different cultures and civilizations.

In the 18th century, the rise of the Pashtun tribes and the founding of the Durrani Empire marked a defining moment in Afghan history. The Durrani Empire, under the leadership of Ahmad Shah Durrani, united the Pashtun tribes and expanded Afghan territory to include parts of present-day Pakistan and Iran.

The 19th and 20th centuries were marked by political instability and foreign invasions. Afghanistan became a battleground for competing European powers, including Britain and Russia. The country also faced internal conflicts and struggles for power among local warlords.

Today, Afghanistan continues to grapple with the challenges of political instability and conflict. However, its rich history and cultural heritage serve as a reminder of its ancient roots and enduring resilience.

Afghanistan in Pre-Islamic Era

Afghanistan has a rich history that dates back to ancient times. Before the arrival of Islam, it was home to various civilizations and empires, each leaving their mark on the region’s culture and identity.

One of the earliest known civilizations in Afghanistan is the Indus Valley Civilization, which thrived around 2500 BCE in the region’s northwestern areas. This advanced urban culture had well-planned cities, advanced agricultural techniques, and a system of writing.

Another important era in Afghanistan’s history is the Achaemenid Empire, which rose to power in the 6th century BCE and encompassed a vast territory, including present-day Afghanistan. The Achaemenid rulers, known for their tolerance towards different cultures and religions, left a lasting influence on Afghan society.

Following the Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great invaded Afghanistan in the 4th century BCE, introducing Greek culture and ideals to the region. This period, known as the Hellenistic era, witnessed the merging of Greek, Persian, and local traditions, creating a unique blend of cultures.

In the centuries that followed, Afghanistan saw the rise and fall of various empires, such as the Maurya Empire, the Kushan Empire, and the Sassanian Empire. Each empire brought its own customs, languages, and religious beliefs to the region.

By the 7th century CE, Afghanistan was predominantly Buddhist, with the religion flourishing in the region. Buddhist monasteries and shrines dotted the landscape, and the famous Bamiyan Buddhas stood tall as symbols of Afghanistan’s religious diversity.

However, it was during this period that Islam began to make its way into Afghanistan. Arab armies, led by Muhammad bin Qasim, began their conquest of the region in 664 CE, spreading Islam and gradually converting the local population.

The conversion to Islam was not immediate, and pockets of resistance persisted for several centuries. It wasn’t until the 11th century that Islam became firmly entrenched in Afghanistan, with the Ghaznavid Empire playing a crucial role in its spread.

As Islam took hold in Afghanistan, a unique blend of Islam and local traditions emerged, known as Afghan Islam. This syncretic form of Islam incorporates elements of Sufism, tribal customs, and traditional beliefs, shaping the religious and cultural landscape of Afghanistan.

By understanding the rich history of Afghanistan before the Islamic era, we can appreciate the diverse cultural heritage of the country and the interplay between different civilizations that have shaped its identity over time.

Arrival of Islam in Afghanistan

The arrival of Islam in Afghanistan can be traced back to the 7th century when Muslim Arab armies began their conquests in the region. Prior to the arrival of Islam, Afghanistan was predominantly a Zoroastrian and Buddhist land.

Islam spread into Afghanistan through various means, including trade routes and military conquests. Arab Muslim armies, led by the Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates, began their conquests of the Sassanian Empire in the mid-7th century. As they conquered new territories, they introduced Islam to the local populations.

Muslim Arab armies reached the region of modern-day Afghanistan in the late 7th century. The city of Zaranj, in present-day Nimruz province, was one of the first places in Afghanistan to embrace Islam. The Arab armies continued their advance and gradually Islamized the population of other cities and regions.

During the early years of Muslim rule in Afghanistan, the majority of the local population converted to Islam. However, pockets of resistance remained, and it took several centuries for Islam to become the dominant religion in the region.

Islam not only brought a new religious belief to Afghanistan but also influenced its culture and society. Islamic architecture, art, and literature flourished in the region, leaving behind a rich heritage that is still evident in the country today.

The spread of Islam in Afghanistan was not without challenges and conflicts. Various dynasties and empires rose and fell, and different sects and schools of Islamic thought emerged. The Shia and Sunni divide, which originated in the early years of Islam, also found its way into Afghanistan’s religious and political landscape.

Today, Islam is the predominant religion in Afghanistan, with the majority of the population practicing Sunni Islam. The arrival of Islam in Afghanistan marked a significant turning point in the country’s history, shaping its culture, politics, and society for centuries to come.

The Arab Conquest of Afghanistan

The Arab conquest of Afghanistan began in the mid-7th century, around the same time as the rise of Islam. The Islamic armies, led by the Rashidun Caliphate, embarked on a series of military campaigns to spread the message of Islam and expand the territories under Muslim rule.

The conquest of Afghanistan was not a straightforward process. The rugged terrain, tribal rivalries, and resistance from local rulers posed significant challenges to the Arab armies. However, over time, Islam gradually gained strength in the region.

One of the defining moments in the Arab conquest of Afghanistan was the Battle of Nihawand in 642. This decisive battle resulted in the defeat of the Sassanian Empire and marked the beginning of Arab dominance in the region. The victory further solidified the spread of Islam to the Persian-speaking areas, including Afghanistan.

Following the Battle of Nihawand, Arab governors were appointed to administer the conquered territories, including Afghanistan. They established military garrisons, implemented administrative reforms, and introduced Islamic institutions, such as mosques and madrasas.

Arab rule in Afghanistan lasted for several centuries, and during this time, Islam became deeply entrenched in the social, cultural, and political fabric of the region. The Arab conquerors introduced Arabic as the language of administration and promoted the teachings of the Quran.

Despite the Arab conquest, pockets of resistance persisted in parts of Afghanistan. Local tribes and rulers often revolted against Arab rule, resulting in intermittent periods of instability in the region. However, Islam continued to spread, and Arab influence gradually expanded.

The Arab conquest of Afghanistan played a significant role in the Islamicization of the region. It laid the foundation for the establishment of Islamic dynasties and the eventual development of Afghanistan as an Islamic country.

Afghanistan under the Umayyads

During the Umayyad Caliphate, which lasted from 661 to 750 CE, Afghanistan was under the control of the Muslim Arab rulers. The Umayyads were the first dynasty to rule the Islamic Caliphate after the death of Prophet Muhammad. They established their capital in Damascus, Syria, and expanded their control over various regions, including Afghanistan.

The Umayyads introduced Islam to Afghanistan during their rule and played a significant role in spreading the religion in the region. They established administrative structures and promoted the teachings of Islam through conversion and missionary activities.

Under the Umayyads, Afghanistan became a part of the larger Islamic empire and integrated into the wider Muslim community. Muslim governors were appointed to administer the region, and mosques and Islamic educational institutions were established.

The Umayyad rule in Afghanistan witnessed both political and military developments. The region served as a strategic outpost for the Umayyads in their expansionist policies. They engaged in conflicts with local rulers and faced resistance from various factions.

Despite the challenges, the Umayyads successfully maintained their control over Afghanistan, and the region became an important center for Islamic scholarship and cultural exchange. Afghan scholars emerged and contributed to various fields, including Islamic jurisprudence, theology, linguistics, and literature.

This period also witnessed the introduction of Islamic art and architecture in Afghanistan. Mosques and palaces were built following the Umayyad architectural style, influenced by both Arab and local traditions.

However, towards the end of the Umayyad Caliphate, Afghanistan witnessed a decline in their control as regional uprisings and revolts contributed to the fragmentation of the Umayyad empire. The Abbasids eventually overthrew the Umayyads and established their own rule, marking the end of the Umayyad period in Afghanistan.

Overall, the Umayyads’ rule in Afghanistan played a crucial role in introducing and establishing Islam in the region. Their administrative structures, cultural exchange, and contributions to education and scholarship left a lasting impact on Afghanistan’s Islamic identity.

Afghanistan during the Abbasid Caliphate

During the Abbasid Caliphate, which lasted from 750 to 1258 AD, Afghanistan was a part of the larger Islamic empire ruled by the Abbasid dynasty. The Abbasid Caliphate was one of the most influential Islamic empires in history and played a significant role in shaping the culture, religion, and governance of Afghanistan.

Following the fall of the Umayyad Caliphate, the Abbasids came to power and established their capital in Baghdad. Afghanistan, strategically located at the crossroads of Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, became an important province of the empire. The region was known as Khorasan, which included present-day Afghanistan, parts of Iran, and Central Asia.

Under the rule of the Abbasids, Afghanistan witnessed a period of economic growth and cultural exchange. The empire established efficient administrative systems and implemented policies that encouraged trade and commerce. As a result, cities such as Herat, Balkh, and Kabul became prosperous centers of trade and intellectual activity.

The Abbasids also played a crucial role in spreading and consolidating Islam in Afghanistan. Islamic scholars and religious leaders were patronized, leading to the establishment of mosques, madrasas (religious schools), and other religious institutions. Islam gradually became the dominant religion in the region, assimilating with local traditions and customs.

During the Abbasid Caliphate, Afghanistan also played a significant role in defending the empire’s eastern borders against external threats. The region provided a buffer zone against invasions from the Central Asian steppe nomads and played a vital role in maintaining the empire’s territorial integrity.

However, the later years of the Abbasid Caliphate were marked by internal conflicts and decentralization of political power. As a result, Afghanistan witnessed the rise of local rulers and the emergence of competing regional powers.

In summary, during the Abbasid Caliphate, Afghanistan was an integral part of the Islamic empire and played a crucial role in the economic, cultural, and religious development of the region. The empire’s administrative policies, patronage of Islamic institutions, and strategic location contributed to the growth and prosperity of Afghanistan.

Isma’ilis and the Rise of Islam in Afghanistan

The Isma’ilis were a sect of Shia Islam that played a significant role in the spread of Islam in Afghanistan during the medieval period. Founded by Imam Isma’il, a direct descendant of Prophet Muhammad, the Isma’ilis believed in the concept of the Imamate – the spiritual and political leadership of the Islamic community.

In the 9th century, the Isma’ili doctrine gained followers in Afghanistan, particularly in the region of Badakhshan. The local rulers of Badakhshan, known as the Samanids, embraced Isma’ilism and established a strong political alliance with the Isma’ili Imams.

Under the Samanids’ patronage, Isma’ili scholars and missionaries propagated their faith among the populace of Afghanistan. They built mosques and madrasas (Islamic educational institutions) to educate the masses about Isma’ili beliefs. The Isma’ilis also developed a network of da’is (missionaries) who spread their teachings in different parts of Afghanistan.

The Isma’ilis faced opposition from rival Sunni Muslim factions, but they managed to maintain their influence in certain regions. The Isma’ili rulers of Badakhshan, such as the Nasirids, established a dynasty that lasted for several centuries. They successfully defended their territory against external threats and expanded their domain through military campaigns.

The Isma’ili rulers of Badakhshan not only focused on propagating their faith but also contributed to the cultural development of Afghanistan. They patronized arts, literature, and sciences, attracting scholars and intellectuals from different parts of the Islamic world. This led to the exchange of knowledge and cultural enrichment in Afghanistan.

The Isma’ilis played a crucial role in shaping the religious and intellectual landscape of Afghanistan during their period of influence. While their political power declined over time, their legacy as a significant factor in the rise of Islam in Afghanistan remains.

Conversion of Afghanistan to Sunni Islam

The conversion of Afghanistan to Sunni Islam played a significant role in shaping the religious landscape of the region. The process of conversion took place over several centuries and had both political and cultural implications.

During the late 7th and early 8th centuries, Arab Muslims began to expand their influence in the region. The Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates sought to spread Islam and establish their control over Afghanistan and the neighboring areas. This period witnessed a gradual conversion of the population from their existing beliefs to Islam.

The conversion to Sunni Islam was facilitated by various factors. Firstly, the Arab conquerors presented a compelling religious message that appealed to many Afghans. The simplicity and monotheistic nature of Islam resonated with the local population.

Furthermore, the Arab-Muslim rulers employed both peaceful persuasion and military force to encourage conversion. They often granted certain privileges and benefits to those who converted, while imposing restrictions on non-Muslims. This combination of incentives and coercion led to an increasing number of conversions to Islam.

As Islam took root in Afghanistan, it coexisted with existing religious practices, particularly forms of Buddhism and Zoroastrianism. Over time, however, the number of adherents to these religions dwindled as more people embraced Islam.

The spread of Islam also had significant cultural implications. The Arabic language gained prominence as the language of religious texts and administration, replacing local languages like Bactrian and Sogdian. Islamic art, architecture, and customs began to influence Afghan culture.

It is important to note that while Sunni Islam became the dominant religious tradition in Afghanistan, there were still followers of Shia Islam and other sects. These divisions within Islam have at times led to sectarian tensions and conflicts within the country.

Overall, the conversion of Afghanistan to Sunni Islam was a gradual and complex process influenced by both religious and political factors. It shaped the religious, cultural, and social fabric of the region and continues to play a significant role in Afghan society today.

Afghanistan under the Ghaznavids

The Ghaznavid Empire, led by the Persian-speaking Turkic dynasty of the same name, played a significant role in the history of Afghanistan during the 10th and 11th centuries. Founded by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in 977, the Ghaznavid Empire grew to become one of the most powerful Islamic states of its time.

Mahmud of Ghazni was known for his military prowess and expansionist policies. He launched a series of campaigns against both Hindu kingdoms in India and the Samanid Empire in Central Asia, bringing vast territories under his rule. These conquests brought Islam to many parts of present-day Afghanistan and India.

The Ghaznavids established their capital in Ghazni, located in present-day Afghanistan. Mahmud of Ghazni, in particular, is remembered as a patron of literature, arts, and sciences. Despite their Turkic origins, the Ghaznavids adopted Persian culture and language, contributing to the flourishing of Persian poetry and scholarship.

The Ghaznavid Empire reached its zenith under Sultan Mahmud’s rule. He greatly expanded the empire’s boundaries, extending his influence as far as the Indus River. Mahmud’s military campaigns and control over key trade routes brought immense wealth, which he invested in the development of Ghazni as a center of art and scholarship.

However, after Mahmud’s death in 1030, the Ghaznavid Empire faced internal conflicts and external pressure from rival powers. The empire gradually weakened, and by the end of the 12th century, it disintegrated, paving the way for the rise of other powers in the region.

Despite its eventual decline, the Ghaznavid Empire left a lasting impact on the history and culture of Afghanistan. It played a crucial role in spreading Islam to the region and fostering the development of Persian literature and scholarship. The Ghaznavid era marks an important period of Afghan history, showcasing the blend of Turkic and Persian influences that would continue to shape the country’s cultural identity in the centuries to come.

The Ghurid Dynasty and Islamic Rule

The Ghurid Dynasty played a crucial role in establishing Islamic rule in Afghanistan. This dynasty emerged in the late 11th century in the region of Ghor, located in present-day Afghanistan. The Ghurids were originally Buddhists, but they converted to Islam in the early 12th century.

Under the leadership of Sultan Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad, the Ghurid Dynasty expanded its territory and influence. Muhammad conquered neighboring regions, including parts of India, and established an empire that extended from Central Asia to the Indian subcontinent.

With their Islamic identity now firmly established, the Ghurids promoted Islam as the dominant religion in their empire. They built numerous mosques, madrasas, and other Islamic institutions. These institutions became key centers for the spread of Islamic teachings and the Arabic language.

One of the most notable achievements of the Ghurid Dynasty was the construction of the famous Minaret of Jam. This minaret, located in western Afghanistan, stands as a symbol of Islamic architecture and the influence of the Ghurids in the region.

Key Facts about the Ghurid Dynasty:
Time Period: 1148-1215
Capital: Firuzkuh
Significance: Consolidated Islamic rule in Afghanistan and extended influence to neighboring regions
Legacy: Promotion of Islam, construction of Islamic institutions, Minaret of Jam

While the Ghurid Dynasty eventually declined and was succeeded by other Islamic rulers in Afghanistan, its impact on the region’s history and the establishment of Islamic rule was significant. Its promotion of Islam and the construction of Islamic institutions laid the foundation for the Islamic identity that Afghanistan possesses to this day.

Mongol Invasions and their Impact on Afghanistan

The Mongol invasions of Afghanistan commenced in the early 13th century and had a significant impact on the region. Led by Genghis Khan, the Mongols conquered much of Central Asia and eventually turned their attention towards Afghanistan. The Mongol conquests were characterized by their brutality and destruction, often resulting in the massacre of entire cities and the devastation of agricultural lands.

The Mongols saw the territories they conquered as sources of wealth and resources, and Afghanistan was no exception. They established a network of trade routes through the region, connecting Afghanistan to the Mongol-held territories in Central Asia and beyond. This stimulated trade and commerce, and cities like Herat and Balkh became important commercial centers along the Silk Road.

However, the Mongol rule in Afghanistan was not without its challenges. The local population resisted the Mongol invaders, leading to several uprisings and rebellions. One of the most notable revolts was led by a local Afghan leader named Jalal ud-Din, who managed to briefly unify different Afghan tribes and put up a formidable resistance against the Mongols. Although Jalal ud-Din was eventually defeated and killed, his resistance showed the resilience and determination of the Afghan people.

The Mongol invasions also had a profound impact on the religion and culture of Afghanistan. Prior to the Mongol conquests, Afghanistan had a predominantly Islamic identity. However, the Mongols brought with them a variety of beliefs and practices, including Shamanism and Buddhism, which influenced the local culture. Over time, however, Islam reasserted itself as the dominant religion in the region.

In conclusion, the Mongol invasions of Afghanistan had a lasting impact on the region. While they brought destruction and suffering, they also stimulated trade and commerce, and influenced the religious and cultural landscape of Afghanistan. The legacy of the Mongol presence can still be seen in the region today.

The Timurid Empire in Afghanistan

The Timurid Empire played a significant role in shaping the history of Afghanistan during the 15th and 16th centuries. Founded by the powerful Turkic-Mongol conqueror Timur (Tamerlane) in the late 14th century, the Timurid Empire expanded rapidly through military conquests, and Afghanistan emerged as a vital part of this empire.

Under the Timurid rule, Afghanistan experienced a period of cultural and intellectual flourishing. Timurid rulers, known for their patronage of arts and sciences, encouraged the development of literature, architecture, and the advancement of knowledge.

One notable Timurid ruler who left a lasting impact on Afghanistan was Sultan Husayn Bayqara. He was known for his support of poets, scholars, and artists, and his court became a hub of cultural activities. The city of Herat, in particular, flourished as a center of art and learning during his reign.

In addition to promoting cultural achievements, the Timurid Empire also shaped the political landscape of Afghanistan. The empire’s influence extended beyond the borders of Afghanistan, and Timurid princes ruled over various regions in present-day Afghanistan, including Kabul and Kandahar.

However, the Timurid Empire faced challenges and conflicts, both internally and externally. After Sultan Husayn Bayqara’s death, the empire faced a series of internal power struggles, which weakened its grip on Afghanistan. Moreover, external powers, such as the Uzbek tribes and the Safavid Empire, also posed threats to the Timurid rule in Afghanistan.

By the early 16th century, the Timurid Empire began to decline, and Afghanistan fell under the control of various regional powers. Ultimately, the Safavids emerged as the dominant force in the region, marking the end of the Timurid Empire’s rule in Afghanistan.

Despite its eventual decline, the Timurid Empire left a lasting legacy in Afghanistan. Its patronage of arts and culture contributed to the development of a unique Afghan identity and heritage. The Timurid period is still recognized as a golden age in the country’s history.

Key Points
Founded by Timur (Tamerlane), the Timurid Empire had a significant impact on Afghanistan during the 15th and 16th centuries.
The Timurid Empire promoted cultural and intellectual achievements in Afghanistan, including literature, architecture, and knowledge.
Sultan Husayn Bayqara, a Timurid ruler, played a crucial role in advancing arts and sciences in Afghanistan.
The Timurid Empire faced internal power struggles and external threats, leading to its decline in the early 16th century.
The Timurid period is considered a golden age in Afghan history, contributing to the country’s cultural heritage.

Afghanistan under the Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire, which spanned from the 16th to the 18th centuries, had a significant influence on Afghanistan’s history and culture. During this time, Afghanistan was a part of the Mughal Empire and was ruled by Mughal emperors.

The Mughals, originally from Central Asia, established their empire in India and extended their control over parts of present-day Afghanistan. Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan, was an important city under Mughal rule and served as a regional center for administration and trade.

Under Mughal rule, Afghanistan experienced a period of cultural and intellectual flourishing. The Mughals encouraged the development of arts, literature, and architecture, leading to the construction of magnificent palaces, mosques, and gardens in Kabul and other cities.

One notable Mughal emperor who had an impact on Afghanistan was Emperor Akbar the Great. Akbar recognized the strategic significance of Afghanistan and sought to strengthen Mughal control over the region. He annexed Kabul and expanded the empire’s reach into Afghanistan.

Afghanistan’s strategic location as a crossroads between Central Asia, Persia, and India made it an important territory for the Mughals. It served as a gateway for trade and cultural exchange between these regions.

However, the Mughal Empire’s control over Afghanistan was not without challenges. Afghanistan’s rugged terrain and tribal rivalries made it difficult for the Mughals to exert full authority over the region. Various Afghan tribes resisted Mughal rule and fought against the empire’s forces.

In the later years of the Mughal Empire, as its decline began, Afghanistan started to assert its independence. Local Afghan rulers took advantage of the weakening Mughal grip to establish their own kingdoms and dynasties in different parts of the country.

Overall, the Mughal Empire left a lasting impact on Afghanistan, shaping its cultural, architectural, and political landscape. The influence of the Mughals can still be seen in the historical monuments and buildings in Afghanistan today.

Shebanids and the Spread of Islam in Afghanistan

The Shebanids were a dynasty of Uzbek origin that ruled over the area of present-day Afghanistan from the early 16th century to the mid-18th century. During their reign, the spread of Islam in Afghanistan accelerated, as they were staunch adherents of the religion.

The Shebanids’ promotion of Islam was facilitated by their conquests and consolidation of power. They established a centralized government and imposed Islamic law throughout their territories. This led to the gradual conversion of the Afghan population to Islam.

One of the key figures in the spread of Islam during the Shebanid rule was Mirwais Hotak. He played a crucial role in resisting foreign rule and establishing an independent Afghan state. As a devout Muslim, Mirwais Hotak emphasized the importance of Islam in uniting the Afghan tribes and securing their independence.

The Shebanids also patronized Islamic scholars and built religious institutions, including mosques, madrasas, and shrines. These institutions served as centers of learning, where both religious and secular subjects were taught. They played a significant role in the dissemination of Islamic teachings and the spread of literacy among the Afghan population.

Furthermore, the Shebanids promoted the use of the Arabic language and the adoption of Islamic cultural practices. Arabic became the language of administration and the religious elite. Islamic rituals and traditions became widespread, with the observance of prayers, fasting, and pilgrimage becoming integral parts of Afghan society.

With the establishment of the Shebanid dynasty, Islam became the dominant religion in Afghanistan, gradually superseding the indigenous religions and belief systems. The spread of Islam laid the foundation for the emergence of a distinct Afghan identity, with religion playing a central role in the cultural and social fabric of the country.

Key Points
The Shebanids were a Uzbek dynasty that ruled Afghanistan in the 16th-18th centuries
They promoted Islam through conquests and the imposition of Islamic law
Mirwais Hotak played a crucial role in spreading Islam and securing Afghan independence
The Shebanids built religious institutions and patronized Islamic scholarship
Islam became the dominant religion in Afghanistan under Shebanid rule

Afghanistan in the Early Modern Period

In the early modern period, Afghanistan went through a series of political and religious changes that significantly shaped the country’s Islamic identity.

During the 16th and 17th centuries, Afghanistan was part of the powerful Timurid Empire, which spanned across Central Asia and included present-day Afghanistan, Iran, and parts of India. This period saw the spread of Islam in the region, and the Timurid rulers played a crucial role in promoting the religion.

However, political instability and external invasions in the 18th century led to the disintegration of the Timurid Empire, creating a power vacuum in Afghanistan. In the late 18th century, an Afghan tribal leader named Ahmad Shah Durrani emerged as a powerful figure and established the modern state of Afghanistan.

Ahmad Shah Durrani, also known as Ahmad Shah Baba, aimed to create a united and independent Afghanistan. He embraced Sunni Islam as the state religion and sought to consolidate the Islamic identity of the Afghan people. Under his rule, Islamic scholars and institutions flourished, and mosques were built throughout the country.

However, Afghanistan’s Islamic identity continued to evolve throughout the early modern period due to external influences. In the 19th century, Afghanistan became a battleground for the Great Game, a political and military confrontation between the British and Russian Empires. This period of intense rivalry and interference by colonial powers shaped Afghanistan’s political landscape and had an impact on its Islamic identity.

Furthermore, the 20th century brought significant changes to Afghanistan. The country experienced a series of political and social upheavals, including the Soviet invasion, the rise of the Taliban, and the US-led invasion in response to the 9/11 attacks. These events further shaped Afghanistan’s Islamic identity and led to varying interpretations and practices of Islam in the country.

Overall, the early modern period in Afghanistan marked a crucial phase in the country’s Islamic history. From the spread of Islam during the Timurid Empire to the establishment of an independent Afghanistan under Ahmad Shah Durrani, and the subsequent political and social changes, Afghanistan’s Islamic identity has undergone significant transformations throughout history.

Afghanistan under the Durrani Empire

The Durrani Empire, also known as the Afghan Empire, was established in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani, also known as Ahmad Shah Abdali. This empire lasted until 1826 and played a significant role in shaping Afghanistan’s history.

Ahmad Shah Durrani unified various Pashtun tribes and founded the modern state of Afghanistan. He proclaimed himself as the “Durr-i-Durrani” or “Pearl of Pearls” and became the first king of the Durrani Empire.

Under the Durrani Empire, Afghanistan expanded its boundaries and exerted control over a vast territory that included parts of present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran. Ahmad Shah Durrani successfully defended Afghanistan against invasions by the Persian and Mughal empires.

The Durrani Empire was known for its central administrative structure and efficient military organization. Ahmad Shah Durrani established a system of governance that allowed him to maintain control over a diverse population consisting of various ethnic groups and tribes.

The empire also had a strong influence on the cultural and religious landscape of Afghanistan. Pashto, spoken by the majority of the population, became the primary language of the Durrani Empire. Islam was the dominant religion, with Sunni Islam being the officially recognized sect.

The Durrani Empire faced various challenges, including internal conflicts and external pressures from neighboring empires. After Ahmad Shah Durrani’s death in 1772, his successors struggled to maintain unity and faced frequent revolts and power struggles.

By the early 19th century, the Durrani Empire began to decline, and its territories were gradually lost to the expanding British Empire and the Persian Empire. In 1826, the empire officially ended with the death of its last ruler, Mahmud Shah Durrani.

Despite its eventual decline, the Durrani Empire played a crucial role in establishing Afghanistan as an independent nation and shaping its political, cultural, and religious identity.

The British Influence in Afghanistan

During the 19th century, Afghanistan faced significant interference from the British Empire, which ultimately had a profound impact on the country’s history and development.

The British initially became involved in Afghanistan as part of their larger strategic ambitions in Central Asia and as a counterbalance to the growing influence of the Russian Empire. The first British intervention in Afghanistan occurred in 1839, when a British force invaded the country and installed a puppet ruler, Shah Shuja, in an attempt to establish control.

However, this intervention quickly met with resistance from the Afghan people, who saw it as a foreign occupation. The British faced a prolonged and brutal conflict, known as the First Anglo-Afghan War, which ended in their defeat and the eventual withdrawal of their forces in 1842.

Despite this setback, the British continued to exert their influence in Afghanistan through indirect means. They signed agreements with various Afghan rulers, known as the Durand Line, which defined the border between British India and Afghanistan. These agreements effectively established British influence over Afghan foreign affairs.

In addition to exerting control over Afghan external affairs, the British also sought to influence internal affairs. They supported rulers who were sympathetic to British interests and acted as intermediaries in tribal disputes. They introduced modern infrastructure, such as roads, railways, and telegraph lines, which further tied Afghanistan to British India.

However, this British influence was not without its consequences. The Afghan people often viewed the British as colonial occupiers and resented their interference in Afghan affairs. This led to periodic uprisings and rebellions against British rule, most notably the Second Anglo-Afghan War in 1878-1880.

Despite the challenges and conflicts, the British influence in Afghanistan helped shape the country’s modern institutions and infrastructure. Many of the political, administrative, and economic systems introduced by the British continue to have an impact today.

In conclusion, the British influence in Afghanistan during the 19th century had a significant impact on the country’s history. It shaped Afghan-British relations, political dynamics, and infrastructure development, while also leading to periods of conflict and resistance from the Afghan people.

Afghanistan under King Zahir Shah

Afghanistan under King Zahir Shah

King Zahir Shah reigned over Afghanistan from 1933 to 1973, making him the longest-serving monarch in the country’s history. His reign was marked by efforts to modernize and moderate Afghan society, as well as maintain a delicate balance between the country’s ethnic and tribal factions.

During King Zahir Shah’s rule, Afghanistan experienced a period of relative stability and progress in various areas. The government invested in infrastructure development, education, and healthcare, which led to improvements in living standards for many Afghans.

One of King Zahir Shah’s notable achievements was the introduction of a democratic constitution in 1964, which provided for greater political representation and civil rights for the Afghan people. This period also saw the establishment of political parties and the expansion of women’s rights.

While King Zahir Shah pursued diplomatic relations with both the East and the West, he maintained a policy of neutrality in the midst of the Cold War. Afghanistan received aid and support from various countries, including the United States and the Soviet Union.

However, King Zahir Shah’s rule was not without challenges. Afghanistan faced increasing political tensions and socioeconomic disparities, particularly among rural populations. Islamic fundamentalism also began to gain traction during this time, as some groups sought to establish a more conservative form of governance.

In 1973, King Zahir Shah was overthrown in a bloodless coup led by his cousin and former Prime Minister, Mohammed Daoud Khan, who proclaimed himself President. This marked the end of the monarchy and the beginning of a new era for Afghanistan.

In conclusion, King Zahir Shah’s reign marked a period of relative stability and progress for Afghanistan. His efforts to modernize the country and introduce democratic reforms laid the groundwork for future developments. However, challenges remained, and the country would soon experience significant changes and turmoil in the years to come.

Modernization and Islamization in Afghanistan

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Afghanistan began to experience significant changes under the rule of King Abdul Rahman Khan. During this period, the country underwent a process of modernization and Islamization that shaped its future development.

As part of his efforts to centralize power, King Abdul Rahman Khan initiated a series of reforms aimed at modernizing Afghanistan’s political, economic, and social systems. This included the establishment of a modern bureaucracy, the introduction of a new legal code, and the creation of a standing army. These reforms were influenced by Western models and aimed to bring Afghanistan in line with the changes taking place in neighboring countries.

At the same time, Islam played a central role in shaping Afghan identity and culture. Throughout the modernization process, Islamic values and principles were emphasized, and religious institutions were strengthened. Islamic education, both formal and informal, became more widespread, and Islamic scholars were given a prominent role in the new bureaucracy.

The modernization and Islamization processes were interconnected, with Islam providing a framework for societal change and serving as a source of legitimacy for the ruling elite. The monarchy presented itself as the defender of Islam and the custodian of Afghan traditions, while also embracing modern ideas and institutions.

However, the modernization and Islamization efforts were not without tensions and conflicts. The introduction of Western-style education and legal systems clashed with traditional Afghan customs and practices. The increasing role of the state in religious affairs also sparked resistance from conservative elements within society. These tensions would continue to shape Afghanistan’s development in the decades to come.

Key Points:
– Afghanistan underwent a process of modernization and Islamization in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
– King Abdul Rahman Khan introduced reforms to modernize Afghanistan’s political, economic, and social systems.
– Islam played a central role in shaping Afghan identity and culture during this period.
– The modernization and Islamization processes were interconnected, with Islam providing a framework for societal change.
– Tensions and conflicts arose due to clashes between Western-style reforms and traditional Afghan customs.

Afghanistan under Soviet Occupation

The Soviet Occupation of Afghanistan occurred from 1979 to 1989. It was a period marked by significant turmoil and conflict as the Soviet Union attempted to gain control over the country.


  • Political instability in Afghanistan during the late 1970s
  • The Afghan Communist Party’s rise to power through a military coup in 1978
  • Growing opposition to the Communist government by various Afghan rebel groups, known as the mujahideen


In December 1979, Soviet forces invaded Afghanistan to support the Communist government. The invasion was met with strong resistance from the mujahideen and led to a prolonged and costly war.


  • The Soviet Union installed a puppet government under Babrak Karmal, who faced widespread opposition
  • Soviet forces, numbering around 100,000 troops at their peak, engaged in brutal warfare with the mujahideen
  • The occupation resulted in a vast number of civilian casualties and widespread destruction
  • The Soviet Union attempted to enforce its socialist ideology on Afghanistan, leading to further discontent among the Afghan population


  • The mujahideen, consisting of various groups with different ideologies and backgrounds, fought against the Soviet forces using guerilla warfare tactics
  • They received financial and military support from several external sources, including the United States, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia
  • The resistance against the Soviet occupation gained international attention and support


  • The Soviet Union faced mounting costs and casualties in Afghanistan, which became a significant drain on its resources
  • In 1988, an agreement was reached between the Soviet Union, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the United States for a Soviet withdrawal
  • The Soviet forces completed their withdrawal from Afghanistan in February 1989


  • The Soviet occupation and subsequent war against the mujahideen led to extensive destruction, loss of lives, and the displacement of millions of Afghans
  • The conflict also set the stage for the rise of the Taliban, a fundamentalist Islamic group that eventually took control of Afghanistan
  • The Soviet occupation and the resistance against it played a significant role in shaping Afghanistan’s modern history and its ongoing conflicts

Overall, the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan was a period of intense conflict and suffering for the Afghan people, with long-lasting consequences that continue to affect the country today.

The Rise of the Taliban in Afghanistan

The Taliban is a radical Islamic extremist group that rose to power in Afghanistan in the early 1990s. The group emerged from the chaos and power vacuum that followed the Soviet Union’s withdrawal from the country in 1989.

The Taliban’s ideology is rooted in a strict interpretation of Sunni Islam and their goal was to establish a pure Islamic state governed by their interpretation of Sharia law. They gained support from various conservative factions within Afghanistan, particularly in rural areas, where people were disillusioned with the Mujahideen groups that had fought against the Soviets.

In 1992, a civil war broke out between different Mujahideen factions vying for control of Afghanistan. The country was marred by violence, lawlessness, and instability. Amidst this chaos, the Taliban emerged as a force to be reckoned with, advocating for stability and security.

By 1996, the Taliban had managed to capture Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan, and declared the establishment of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. Under Taliban rule, strict interpretations of Islamic law were enforced, leading to widespread human rights abuses, particularly against women and minorities.

The Taliban’s rise to power was aided by their connections with Pakistan, which provided them with weapons, training, and financial support. Many Afghan refugees who had fled to Pakistan during the Soviet occupation joined the Taliban’s ranks, further bolstering their numbers.

During their rule, the Taliban also provided a safe haven for global terrorist groups, including Al-Qaeda, which had been responsible for the 9/11 attacks in the United States. As a result, the Taliban faced international backlash and military intervention from a coalition led by the United States in 2001.

Although the Taliban was initially toppled from power by the U.S.-led coalition, they regrouped and launched an insurgency in Afghanistan, aiming to oust foreign forces and regain control. This insurgency lasted for over 20 years, and despite efforts by the Afghan government and international forces to stabilize the country, the Taliban steadily regained territory.

In 2021, the Taliban once again seized control of Afghanistan, as foreign forces withdrew from the country. The swift takeover highlighted the failure of the U.S.-led mission and raised concerns about the future of human rights and stability in Afghanistan.

Afghanistan after the Taliban Rule

After the fall of the Taliban regime in 2001, Afghanistan faced numerous challenges as it entered into a new era of governance and rebuilding. The Taliban rule had left the country devastated with a shattered economy, crumbling infrastructure, and a deeply divided society.

The period after the Taliban rule was characterized by efforts to establish a stable government and build a democratic system. In 2004, Afghanistan held its first presidential election, marking a significant step towards political transformation. Hamid Karzai was elected as the president, and the country began to slowly rebuild its institutions.

One of the key focuses of the post-Taliban era was the establishment of security and stability. The United Nations and international forces, led by NATO, deployed troops to help train Afghan security forces and maintain peace in the region. However, the country still faced ongoing insurgent attacks from the Taliban and other militant groups.

Economic development was also a major priority for Afghanistan after the Taliban rule. International aid and investment flowed into the country, aiming to stimulate economic growth and address widespread poverty. Reconstruction projects were initiated to rebuild infrastructure and improve access to essential services such as education, healthcare, and clean water.

Another significant aspect of the post-Taliban period was the re-emergence of cultural and social activities. Under the Taliban rule, many forms of entertainment, including music and sports, were prohibited. After the fall of the regime, Afghan society began to revive these aspects of their culture, providing people with a sense of normalcy and freedom.

Despite the progress made, Afghanistan continues to face numerous challenges. The security situation remains fragile, with ongoing conflicts and terrorist attacks. Political instability, corruption, and socio-economic disparities also hinder the country’s progress.

Challenges faced by Afghanistan after the Taliban rule:
– Rebuilding the economy and infrastructure
– Establishing security and fighting terrorism
– Developing democratic institutions
– Addressing social and cultural issues
– Combating corruption and promoting good governance

However, the Afghan people have shown resilience and determination in striving for a better future. International support and collaboration remain crucial in aiding Afghanistan’s path towards stability and development.

Afghanistan in the 21st Century

Afghanistan in the 21st century continues to face various challenges as it tries to rebuild itself after decades of conflict and instability. The country is still grappling with the repercussions of the U.S.-led invasion in 2001, which overthrew the Taliban regime in response to their support of terrorism.

The years following the invasion were marked by efforts to establish a stable democratic government and rebuild the country’s infrastructure. However, progress has been slow, with Afghanistan facing widespread corruption, insurgency, and political instability.

The economy of Afghanistan primarily depends on agriculture, with the majority of the population engaged in farming. Unfortunately, the country has faced numerous challenges in this sector, including droughts and limited access to modern farming techniques. The drug trade, particularly opium production, has also been a persistent challenge, further hindering economic development.

The issue of security remains a significant concern in Afghanistan. Despite the presence of international forces, including NATO troops, the Taliban and various other militant groups continue to carry out attacks and destabilize the country. The Afghan National Security Forces have made progress in recent years, but they still face challenges in maintaining security across the country.

Education and healthcare have seen some improvements since the Taliban regime, but there are still significant gaps. Many children, especially in rural areas, do not have access to quality education. Similarly, healthcare services are often limited, particularly in remote regions.

Gender equality and women’s rights have also been a topic of concern in Afghanistan. While there have been some positive developments, such as increased access to education and employment opportunities for women, there are still significant cultural and societal barriers that limit women’s rights and participation.

In conclusion, Afghanistan in the 21st century continues to face numerous challenges on its path to stability and development. Efforts are ongoing to address these issues, but progress has been slow. The international community plays a crucial role in supporting Afghanistan’s reconstruction and development, but long-term solutions will require sustained commitment and efforts from the Afghan government and society.

Challenges and Prospects for Afghanistan

Afghanistan, as a country with a rich history and diverse cultural heritage, faces numerous challenges and prospects as it strives for stability and development. These challenges arise from various factors, including political unrest, insecurity, economic difficulties, and social issues. However, there are also opportunities for growth and progress that can shape the country’s future.

1. Security and Political Stability

  • The ongoing conflict and presence of insurgency groups pose a significant challenge to Afghanistan’s security and political stability. Establishing lasting peace and ensuring the safety of its citizens remains a top priority.
  • Promoting good governance, strengthening democratic institutions, and improving the rule of law are crucial steps towards achieving stability and political harmony.

2. Economic Development

  • Afghanistan’s economy heavily relies on agriculture, but it also possesses significant natural resources that can contribute to its growth. Developing a diversified and sustainable economy is essential for reducing poverty and creating job opportunities.
  • Improving infrastructure, attracting foreign investment, and promoting trade and tourism can play a significant role in fostering economic development.

3. Education and Human Capital

3. Education and Human Capital

  • Investing in education and human capital is crucial for Afghanistan’s long-term prospects. Providing accessible and quality education for all, including girls, can empower individuals and contribute to social development.
  • Enhancing vocational training and promoting skill development can address unemployment and contribute to economic growth.

4. Women’s Rights and Gender Equality

4. Women's Rights and Gender Equality

  • Promoting women’s rights and achieving gender equality is essential for Afghanistan’s progress. Ensuring equal access to education, healthcare, and employment opportunities can empower women and contribute to a more inclusive society.
  • Addressing cultural and social norms that limit women’s participation and promoting women’s leadership can lead to positive social change.

5. Regional Cooperation and International Support

  • Engaging in regional cooperation and strengthening international partnerships can provide Afghanistan with valuable support in its development efforts.
  • Investment in infrastructure projects, regional trade agreements, and initiatives for peace-building can contribute to regional stability and economic integration.


While Afghanistan faces many challenges in its journey towards stability and development, there are also numerous prospects for growth and progress. Enhancing security, promoting political stability, fostering economic development, investing in education and human capital, empowering women, and engaging in regional cooperation can shape Afghanistan’s future and lead to a more prosperous and inclusive society.

Afghanistan’s Islamic Heritage

Afghanistan's Islamic Heritage

Afghanistan has a rich Islamic heritage that dates back to the 7th century when Islam first arrived in the region. The spread of Islam in Afghanistan played a significant role in shaping the country’s culture, society, and political landscape.

Shortly after the death of the Prophet Muhammad, Arab armies began expanding their territories and bringing Islam to new lands. In the early 7th century, Afghanistan was part of the Persian Sassanian Empire, and it was during this time that the region first encountered Islam.

By the mid-7th century, Arab armies had conquered much of the Sassanian Empire, including parts of present-day Afghanistan. With the arrival of Islam, the local population gradually embraced the new religion. Mosques were established, and Islamic rituals and practices became integrated into daily life.

Over the centuries, Afghanistan became a center of Islamic learning and scholarship. The country produced renowned Islamic scholars and theologians who made significant contributions to the development of Islamic thought.

During the medieval period, Afghanistan was part of several powerful Islamic empires, including the Ghaznavid Empire, the Ghurid Dynasty, and the Timurid Empire. These empires played a crucial role in spreading Islam throughout Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent.

The Islamic influence is also evident in the architecture and art of Afghanistan. The country is known for its beautiful mosques, mausoleums, and minarets that reflect the rich Islamic architectural traditions. Examples of Afghan Islamic architecture can be found in cities such as Herat, Kabul, and Mazar-i-Sharif.

Famous Islamic Sites in Afghanistan
Name City
Jam Minaret Ghur Province
Blue Mosque Mazar-i-Sharif
Pul-e Khishti Mosque Kabul

Today, Islam is the predominant religion in Afghanistan, with the majority of the population identifying as Muslims. The country continues to be influenced by Islamic traditions and values, which are an essential part of Afghan identity.

In conclusion, Afghanistan’s Islamic heritage is deeply rooted in the country’s history. The arrival of Islam in the 7th century and its subsequent spread led to the formation of an Islamic society that has left a lasting impact on Afghanistan’s culture, architecture, and way of life.

The Future of Islam in Afghanistan

The future of Islam in Afghanistan is uncertain and complex, given the country’s history of conflict and foreign influence. The religion has played a central role in Afghan society for centuries, but it has also been a source of division and violence.

Following the Taliban’s takeover in the 1990s, Afghanistan experienced a harsh interpretation of Islamic law, with widespread human rights abuses and restrictions on women’s rights. However, since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2001, there have been efforts to promote a more moderate and inclusive form of Islam.

One of the main challenges facing the future of Islam in Afghanistan is the ongoing conflict between the Afghan government and various militant groups, including the Taliban. These groups often use their interpretation of Islam to justify their actions and recruit followers. The presence of foreign forces in the country also complicates the situation, as some Afghans view them as an imperialist presence that threatens their religious and cultural values.

Another major factor shaping the future of Islam in Afghanistan is the country’s young population. Around 63% of Afghans are under the age of 25, and many are looking for alternatives to the corruption and instability that have plagued their country. This has led to an increased interest in Islamic education and grassroots movements that promote a more progressive and inclusive interpretation of the religion.

In recent years, there has been a growing trend of Islamic scholars and religious leaders advocating for a more tolerant and liberal form of Islam in Afghanistan. These individuals emphasize the importance of human rights, women’s rights, and religious freedom, while also challenging extremist interpretations of the faith.

However, it is important to note that there are still conservative elements within Afghan society who resist these changes and adhere to more traditional interpretations of Islam. These conservative voices often have significant influence in rural areas and among certain ethnic groups.

The future of Islam in Afghanistan will likely depend on a combination of factors, including the outcome of ongoing peace negotiations, the ability of moderate Islamic voices to gain influence, and the country’s broader political and social development. Ultimately, it is up to the Afghan people to shape the role of Islam in their country and determine how it will contribute to their future progress and stability.


When did Islam reach Afghanistan?

Islam reached Afghanistan in the 7th century AD, after the Arab conquests of the region.

What were the major events that led to the Islamicization of Afghanistan?

The major events that led to the Islamicization of Afghanistan were the Arab conquests of the region in the 7th century AD, the establishment of the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates, and the spread of Sufism.

How did the Arab conquests affect the religious landscape of Afghanistan?

The Arab conquests led to the spread of Islam in Afghanistan and the conversion of many local tribes to the new religion. Islamic institutions, such as mosques and madrasas, were established, and Islamic law became the basis for governance.

What role did Sufism play in the Islamicization of Afghanistan?

Sufism played a significant role in the Islamicization of Afghanistan. Sufi mystics, known as dervishes, traveled to the region and spread their teachings, which combined Islamic beliefs with mystical practices. Sufism provided a more accessible and personal form of Islam that resonated with the local population.

How did the Islamicization of Afghanistan impact its culture and society?

The Islamicization of Afghanistan had a profound impact on its culture and society. Islamic traditions and customs became deeply ingrained in Afghan society, influencing everything from language and dress to architecture and cuisine. Islamic education and scholarship flourished, leading to the development of a unique Afghan Islamic culture.


The history of Afghanistan summarized

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